Pipsc Collective Agreement Bereavement Leave

The Public Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) has negotiated a comprehensive collective agreement for members of the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada (PIPSC). In this agreement, there are provisions for bereavement leave, which is an essential benefits component for employees who need to take time off work to mourn the loss of a loved one.

Bereavement leave is defined as a type of leave that employees are entitled to take when a family member or close friend passes away. It is intended to provide employees with time to grieve and attend to the arrangements that come with death, including attending funeral services, handling legal matters, and taking care of the estate of the deceased.

PIPSC`s collective agreement grants its members with five days of paid bereavement leave. This entitlement covers immediate family members, including spouses or common-law partners, children, parents, grandparents, siblings, and step-relations. Additionally, the coverage can extend to include other relatives and close friends, depending on individual circumstances.

In the case of bereavement leave, the employee must inform their supervisor as soon as possible and provide documentation, such as a death certificate or obituary notice, to support their request. In some cases, the supervisor may require additional information, such as the relationship between the employee and the deceased.

It is important to note that the five-day entitlement is a minimum requirement set out in the collective agreement and employers have the discretion to provide additional time or benefits. Employees should always refer to their specific collective agreement and speak with their human resources representative to understand their entitlements fully.

Grieving is an emotionally draining process, and it is vital that employees have the time to process their loss without worrying about work commitments. PIPSC`s collective agreement provides its members with peace of mind that they can take the necessary time to grieve and take care of the arrangements that come with death.

In conclusion, bereavement leave is an essential component of employee benefits and can be a significant source of support during difficult times. PIPSC`s collective agreement recognizes this and provides its members with a comprehensive bereavement leave entitlement that covers a broad range of family members and close friends. If you are a member of PIPSC and require bereavement leave, speak with your supervisor and human resources representative to access your entitlements fully.

What Is the Gentlemen`s Agreement of 1907

The Gentlemen`s Agreement of 1907 refers to an agreement between the United States and Japan that limited Japanese immigration to the US. The agreement was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese government, with the aim of preventing further tension between the two countries over immigration.

At the time, Japanese immigrants were unfairly treated in the US, facing discrimination and racism from both the government and citizens. This led to several incidents of violence and protests, including the anti-Japanese riots in San Francisco in 1906. In response, the Japanese government threatened to limit the emigration of its citizens to the US, which would have had significant economic and political consequences.

To avoid this, Roosevelt negotiated the Gentlemen`s Agreement, which was essentially a verbal agreement between the two countries. Under the agreement, the US agreed to stop issuing passports to Japanese laborers, while Japan agreed to prevent its citizens from emigrating to the US for work. However, Japanese students, businessmen, and spouses of US citizens were still allowed to enter the country.

The Gentlemen`s Agreement was not a formal treaty and was never ratified by Congress. However, it was successful in reducing Japanese immigration to the US, and maintained peace between the two nations for several years.

However, the agreement did not address the underlying issues of discrimination and racism against Japanese immigrants in the US, and tensions continued to simmer. The Gentlemen`s Agreement was eventually replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924, which placed strict quotas on immigration from certain countries, including Japan.

Today, the Gentlemen`s Agreement of 1907 is remembered as a significant moment in the history of Japanese-American relations, and a reminder of the ongoing struggle for equality and justice for all immigrants.

Party Wall Agreement Timing

As a homeowner or a property developer, there might come a time when you need to carry out work on a party wall. A party wall is a shared wall and is usually found between two properties. This wall is a common feature in properties that are divided into flats or semi-detached houses. Any work carried out on a party wall requires a Party Wall Agreement. But, when should this agreement be obtained?

The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 governs party wall agreements in the UK. Under this act, property owners are required to inform their neighbours of any work that they intend to carry out on a party wall. The notice must be served no less than two months before the work starts. This is the minimum notice period as stated by the Party Wall Act, but it may be necessary to serve the notice much earlier. The timing of the party wall agreement is often crucial to the success of the project and minimising any delays.

The first step in obtaining a party wall agreement is to appoint a surveyor. The surveyor can be either an agreed surveyor or two separate surveyors (one for each owner). The surveyor’s role is to prepare a party wall agreement that outlines the work to be carried out and the rights and responsibilities of both parties. The surveyor(s) will also carry out an inspection and prepare a report on the condition of the party wall before any work begins.

Once the notice has been served, the surveyor(s) will review it and advise the property owner on the next steps. The first step is to ensure that the notice is valid and has been served correctly. The property owner must also ensure that they have obtained the correct planning permissions and that they have correctly identified all the affected parties.

The party wall agreement must be in place before any work starts. This is to ensure that both parties are clear on what work is being carried out and when. The agreement should also include details on how any damage caused by the work will be dealt with.

In conclusion, the timing of the party wall agreement is crucial to the success of any project. It is important to ensure that the notice is served correctly, planning permissions are obtained, and the agreement is in place before any work begins. This will help to minimise delays and avoid any unnecessary legal disputes. If you are unsure about when to obtain a party wall agreement, it is best to seek the advice of a party wall surveyor.

Are Forward Contracts Marked to Market

Forward contracts are a popular financial instrument that is used to manage risk. They are agreements between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specific price in the future. These contracts are usually customized to meet the specific needs of the parties involved.

One question that often comes up when discussing forward contracts is whether they are marked to market. In simple terms, marking to market refers to the process of regularly adjusting the price of an asset to reflect its current market value. This is done to ensure that the value of the asset is accurately reflected in financial statements.

In the case of forward contracts, the answer to whether they are marked to market is a bit complicated. The short answer is that forward contracts are not typically marked to market, at least not in the same way that stocks or other financial instruments are marked to market.

However, it is important to note that there are different types of forward contracts, and the rules regarding marking to market can vary depending on the type of contract.

For example, some forward contracts are cash settled, which means that the parties involved do not actually exchange the underlying asset. Instead, the contract is settled in cash based on the difference between the contract price and the current market price of the asset.

In these cases, the contract may be marked to market to reflect the current market value of the asset. This is done to ensure that the value of the contract is accurately reflected in financial statements.

On the other hand, physical settlement forward contracts, where the parties involved exchange the underlying asset, are not typically marked to market. This is because the parties have agreed on a specific price for the asset, and the contract is settled at that price regardless of the current market value of the asset.

Ultimately, whether a forward contract is marked to market depends on the specific details of the contract and the rules and regulations governing financial reporting for that type of contract.

In conclusion, while forward contracts are not typically marked to market in the same way as other financial instruments, there are situations where they may be subject to marking to market. It is important for anyone considering investing in or using forward contracts to have a good understanding of the rules and regulations governing these contracts to ensure that they are accurately reflected in financial statements.

What Is Contingent Contract and Its Characteristics

Contingent Contract: Understanding its Characteristics

A contingent contract is an agreement between two parties that is dependent on the occurrence of a particular event. In essence, a contingent contract is a contract that is triggered by a certain circumstance or event. This type of contract is also known as a conditional contract, and it is widely used in many industries. Understanding the characteristics of contingent contracts is essential for businesses that want to enter into this type of agreement.

Characteristics of Contingent Contracts

1. Contingent Contracts are Dependent on a Particular Event

The first characteristic of a contingent contract is that it is dependent on a particular event or circumstance. For example, a company may enter into a contingent contract with a supplier that depends on the successful completion of a project. If the project is completed successfully, the supplier is entitled to payment. If the project is not completed, the supplier may not be entitled to any payment.

2. Contingent Contracts are Risky

Contingent contracts are inherently risky because they are dependent on a particular event. If the event does not occur, the contract may be invalidated, and both parties may suffer losses. To mitigate this risk, it is essential to ensure that the event is reasonably likely to occur before entering into the contract.

3. Contingent Contracts are Often Used in Real Estate

Contingent contracts are commonly used in real estate transactions. For example, a buyer may enter into a contingent contract to purchase a property, which is dependent on the successful sale of their current property. If the buyer is unable to sell their property, the contract will be invalidated, and the purchase of the new property will not go ahead.

4. Contingent Contracts are Legally Binding

Contingent contracts are legally binding, just like any other type of contract. The terms and conditions of the contract, including the event on which it is contingent, must be clearly defined and agreed upon by both parties. Failure to comply with the terms of the contract can result in legal action.

5. Contingent Contracts Require Clear Communication

Clear communication is essential when entering into a contingent contract. Both parties must understand the terms of the contract and the event on which it is contingent. It is also essential to ensure that any ambiguities in the contract are resolved before it is signed.


Contingent contracts are an essential tool for businesses that want to protect themselves from losses in the event of unforeseen circumstances. However, they are also inherently risky and require careful consideration before entering into them. Understanding the characteristics of contingent contracts, including their dependency on a particular event, the risks involved, and the need for clear communication, is essential for businesses that want to use this type of contract. By understanding these characteristics, businesses can mitigate the risks of contingent contracts and use them to their advantage.

When Is a Contract Valid and Enforceable

When Is a Contract Valid and Enforceable?

Contracts are an essential part of any business transaction. They provide clarity on the rights and obligations of the parties involved while guiding their actions in a structured way. However, not all contracts are valid or enforceable. There are specific requirements that a contract must meet to be considered legally binding, and failure to meet them may render the contract void or unenforceable.

Here are some factors that determine the validity and enforceability of a contract:

1. Offer and Acceptance

A contract must have an offer and acceptance to be valid. An offer is a statement indicating the willingness of one party to enter into a legally binding agreement with another party. Acceptance is the response of the other party indicating that they agree to the terms of the offer. Both parties must be in full agreement on the terms of the contract for it to be valid.

2. Consideration

Consideration refers to something of value that one party agrees to give or do in exchange for something from the other party. It can be money, goods, or services. Consideration is necessary to make a contract legally binding.

3. Capacity

All parties involved in a contract must have the legal capacity to enter into an agreement. This means they must be of the legal age, not under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and not under duress or coercion to enter into the contract.

4. Legality

For a contract to be valid, it must be legal. This means that the terms of the contract should not violate any laws or public policy. Contracts that involve illegal activities such as gambling, prostitution, or drug trafficking are invalid.

5. Written Form

Some contracts must be in writing to be enforceable. For example, contracts for the sale of land, long-term leases, or employment contracts that last more than one year must be in writing.

Enforceability of a Contract

Once a contract is valid, it becomes legally enforceable. This means that parties can take legal action if one party fails to meet their obligations under the contract. However, there are several defenses that a party can use to avoid enforcement of a contract. These include:

1. Duress and Undue Influence

If one party was forced to enter into the contract under duress or undue influence, the contract may be unenforceable.

2. Mistake

If both parties were mistaken about a fact that is essential to the contract, it may be unenforceable.

3. Fraud

If one party knowingly misrepresents facts in the contract, it may be unenforceable.

4. Illegality

If the contract is illegal, it cannot be enforced.

5. Unconscionability

If the terms of the contract are so unfair that they shock the conscience, a court may refuse to enforce them.

In conclusion, for a contract to be valid and enforceable, it must meet the necessary requirements such as offer and acceptance, consideration, capacity, legality, and, in some cases, written form. Parties must also ensure that they avoid the defenses that can render a contract unenforceable. By following these guidelines, businesses can create valid and binding contracts that protect their interests and ensure smooth transactions.

Att Directv No Contract

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